Ad eundem gradum
- literally 'to the same degree'. Admission of a barrister to a new Inn of Court at the same level previously enjoyed at his initial Inn of Court. Usually abbreviated to ad eundem
- acceptance into membership of the Inn. There were three main types of admission to the Inner Temple
  • General admission (on payment of a standard fee and/or deposit)
  • Special admission (at no cost or at a reduced fee)
  • Ad eundem admission (admission of a barrister called at another Inn of Court on equal terms to barristers called at the Inner Temple.) Special admissions were usually granted by Act of the Inner Temple Parliament (qv)
  • Armiger
    - - the Latin term for a person with the right to bear a coat of arms. Rendered into English as esquire.
    - a general practitioner responsible for preparing legal cases and managing them through court on behalf of clients. Attorneys, who also served as court officials, had to have their names enrolled with the royal courts in which they wished to act. To qualify for enrolment, they were supposed to have served an apprenticeship with an authorized practitioner, but this was not always the case in practice. Such apprenticeships were informal and were not officially recorded. Attorneys could join one of the Inns of Chancery (qv), but membership of one of these Inns never became compulsory and did not offer licence to practice. Even after the emergence of the solicitor, a new type of lawyer who offered similar services, the attorney's office continued, until it was formally abolished in 1875.
    - the second of the three levels of membership. Barristers are entitled to appear as an advocate in the central courts. Formerly known as outer or 'utter' barristers (see The legal profession to 1920 )
    - the most senior of the three types of membership of the Inn. Also known as Master of the Bench. Elected from amongst the barrister members to the Bench of the Inn by fellow Benchers (see The legal profession to 1920 ). In addition a number of Honorary Benchers are chosen from those distinguished outside the Inn, whilst individual members of the British royal family may be admitted as Royal Benchers
    Bench Committees
    - governing committees responsible to the Inn's Parliament (qv) and Bench Table (qv), for different aspects of the Inn's government. Composed of selected Masters of the Bench
    Bench Table
    - the second principal governing body of the Inn, the first being the Inn's Parliament (qv). Comprised of senior Benchers, it evolved in the 17th century to deal with the less formal aspects of the Inn's government, and gradually took over the main matters of government, leaving the Parliament with only a few formal functions. Its resolutions are termed Bench Table Orders (qv)
    Bench Table Orders
    - resolutions of the Bench Table (qv), divided into two types (1) specific orders and (2) standing orders for the governance of the Inn
    - salaried staff employed for the administration and security of the Inn. The Chief Butler, a key official in the past, fulfilled many the duties now undertaken by the Head Porter and the Sub-Treasurer (qv)
    Call to the bar
    - the ceremony at which student members are promoted to the status of barrister by the Benchers (qv) of their Inn of Court
    - sets of rooms within the Inn usually situated on either side of a central staircase. Leased by Inn to members (and in some instances to non-members) for business or residential purposes. Bench chambers: chambers reserved for Benchers (qv)
    Chambers admission
    - formal letting of chambers to tenants
    Common law
    - a system of English law, developed by statute and precedent, employed in the royal law courts, including the Courts of Common Pleas and the King's Bench.
    - subscription paid to Inn for membership and (at certain times) for dinners, accommodation etc.
    Commons, to be in
    - to be an active member of the Inn, keeping terms (qv) etc.
    - a small group of Benchers elected by their fellow Benchers to assist the Treasurer (qv) in the government of the Society in the 15th and 16th centuries
    Gray's Inn
    - one of the four Inns of Court (qv)
    Inner barrister
    - archaic term for a student member of the Inn (see The legal profession to 1920).
    Inner Temple
    - one of the four Inns of Court (qv)
    Inner Temple Parliament
    - see Parliament
    Inns of Chancery
    - societies of lawyers, smaller than and inferior to the Inns of Court, whose origins probably lay in the households of the medieval Masters in Chancery. They provided rudimentary education in the writ system as well as accommodation and hospitality. Until the 16th century, intending barristers frequently attended the Inns of Chancery before joining one of the Inns of Court. Subsequently it was rare to attend both institutions and the Inns of Chancery became the preserves of attorneys, solicitors and their apprentices. Unlike the Inns of Court, membership of these inns did not offer its students a licence to practice and by the second half of the 17th century, their educational role had effectively ceased.

    By the later 17th century, the Inns of Chancery had become attached to one of the
    Inns of Court:
  • Clement's Inn, Clifford's Inn and Lyon's Inn - Inner Temple
  • Strand Inn (abolished in the 16th century) and New Inn - Middle Temple
  • Thavies' Inn and Furnivall's Inn - Lincoln's Inn
  • Barnard's Inn and Staple Inn - Gray's Inn
  • The last remaining Inn of Chancery (Clifford's Inn) was abolished in 1903.
  • Inns of Court
    - unincorporated societies of lawyers established in London in the mid 14th century, which offered residential accommodation and legal training for barristers. The four independent Inns of Court are: Lincoln's Inn, Inner Temple, Middle Temple and Gray's Inn. From the 16th century they made an effort to exclude attorneys (qv) and solicitors (qv) from their societies, reserving them to barristers and trainee barristers. It is the Inns of Court who call qualified members to the bar, enabling them act as advocates in the central law courts (see The legal profession to 1920 )
    Lincoln's Inn
    - one of the four Inns of Court (qv)
    Master of the Bench
    - see Bencher
    Master of the Temple
    - the incumbent of the Temple Church
    Middle Temple
    - one of the four Inns of Court (qv)
    Outer barrister
    - archaic term for a member of the Inn who had been called to the bar. Also known as an Utter barrister see The legal profession to 1920 )
    - the principal governing body of the Inner Temple, comprising all the Benchers (qv)
    - members of the Inn, generally two, who entered into a bond with the Treasurer and Benchers to underwrite any debts incurred to Inn by a new member
    - salaried staff responsible for a wide range of duties, including security. The Head Porter replaced the Chief Butler in relation to many of his duties
    Preacher's duty
    - payment required from members towards the salary of a preacher in the Temple Church
    - originally a senior barrister member chosen to deliver a course of lectures on a legal statute, either to the Inner Temple or to one of its Inns of Chancery (qv). It became customary for a Reader to be called to the Bench after his reading or readings (generally two) and to be allowed to nominate one or more friends or relatives to be admitted to the Inn without payment of the usual entrance fee (special admission) Nowadays, the Reader is elected from among the Benchers in the year before he or she serves as Treasurer of the Inner Temple (qv)
    Serjeants' Inn
    - by 1500 there were two Serjeants' Inns, one in Fleet Street, and one in Chancery Lane. They accommodated two societies of Serjeants-at-law (qv). In 1730, the Fleet Street lease was not renewed and the two societies merged. The last Serjeants' Inn, the one in Chancery Lane, was sold in 1877, although the Society was not dissolved. The last member died in 1921.
    - the most senior type of lawyer from which judges were chosen. On appointment, the new serjeant-at-law had to leave his Inn of Court and join one of the two Serjeants' Inns, in Fleet Street and Chancery Lane. No more serjeants were created after 1875 (see The legal profession to 1920)
    - a new type of lawyer that emerged in the 16th century. However, by the 17th century, the solicitors' profession had become clearly separated from that of barristers. It became similar to the profession of attorney, preparing cases and acting directly on behalf of clients. In 1729 both became subject to tighter regulation and practitioners were expected to join a new professional association entitled 'the Society of Gentlemen Practisers in the Courts of Law and Equity'. The Society's regulatory role was subsequently assumed by the Law Society (incorporated in 1826).
    Special admission
    - see Admission
    - chief salaried administrative official, responsible to the Treasurer and other Benchers (qv). Also known in the 18th century as the Under-Treasurer
    - the four legal terms of the year: Hilary, Easter, Trinity, and Michaelmas To 'keep terms' students required to be in commons (qv) and to dine in the Inn
    - a Bencher (qv), elected annually by fellow Benchers to preside over the society during his term of office. In the 16th and 17th centuries, some Treasurers served for more than one year.
    - see Sub-Treasurer
    Utter barrister
    - see Outer barrister
    - the intervals between legal terms (qv). Learning vacations included compulsory attendance at readings etc.

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